요즘 내 생각을 모아본다.

 

아래는 권종상님 블로그에 남긴 글.

http://blog.naver.com/josephkwon/220565047256

저는 정치와 권위에 “이해하려고 믿는” 신앙이 작용한다고 봅니다. 유교적인 땅에 서서 하늘을 바라보는 인간의 본성, 그리고 인간의 신체로 발현된 신성인 예수, 는 내일의 밥을 걱정하면서 동시에 인생의 꿈과 사회의 정의를 걱정하는 인간의 좋은 메타포입니다. 한국일보 칼럼이나 슬로우뉴스 등에서 찾아본 손이상씨는 이러한 부분을 “트라우마”적으로 설명하는 것 같습니다. 조선일보 선우정 칼럼에서 신경숙의 표절을 창비가 옹호하는 것을 보고 한국의 옳음이 얼마나 알량한 권위 위에 서 있다, 고 한 부분도 생각이 납니다. 논문들에서는 (michael seth 와 류석춘 교수 논문)에서는 한국의 유교주의 문화에 대해 말하며 한국사회의 교육과 발전상을 설명하는데, 제 생각에 사실 격동의 현대사에서 한국의 유교주의는 일본과는 달리 내용은 사라지고 껍데기와 껍데기의 권위만 남은 것 같습니다. 적어도 맹자가 양혜왕 편에서 강조하는 “의”는 보이지 않습니다.

구구절절 늘어놓아 죄송합니다. 하지만 ‘콘크리트 지지층’의 무지를 탓할 게 아니라, 알맹이의 계승이 사라지고, 그것을 이해하기 위해(또는, 알기위해) 일단 믿어버리는(I believe so that I may understand : augustine) 신앙적 봉건성에 기초한 건 아닌가 싶습니다. 진보는, 결과를 보게 되면 결국 이해하게 될 것이기에 필연적일수도 있습니다. 한국 사회는 예수가 십자가에 매달렸듯이, 파국이나 분신, 계몽의 기적이 필요할지도 모릅니다. “세월호”사건은 모두가 자각할 수 밖에 없었던 그러한 성격의 사건이었는지도 모르지만… 동시에 그 정도 비극으로 이 사회가 어림도 없다는 것을 보여준 것은 아닌가 싶습니다.

아무튼 아렌트에 대해 읽어보고 싶어졌습니다. 감사합니다.

광고

Japanese Tenno’s Title in Korea

Meiji_Emperor.jpg

Japanese Tenno’s Title in Korea
: Relation between Social Trauma on History and Far-East Discords

Yoon Jaehyun

Introduction

As people see in Comfort women issue, historical matters are extremely sensitive issue in East Asia. Whether the speaker is professor or not, they can be accused to be imprisoned in their own house before discussion. This example is Professor Park Yuha’s current situation. She is saying “I have wanted that suggestion -Her disputatious book(<The Comfort Women of Imperial>제국의 위안부) is not a problem that can be judged in the court, but in the discussion in the school.[1]-to be from long time ago, sincerely. …… But Jeondaehyoep, Council for countermeasure of comfort women issue, any other researchers and activists never contacted me for 2 years after August 2013, when I published this book[2]. But I have suffered by ‘public opinion’s court’[3](여론재판) and civil trial, and prosecutor’s investigation for one and half year.”[4]

Comfort women issue is related with compensation, so this could be sensitive, but this type of strain is also common with name or title. Recently, there was the other issue, too. It was about ‘why a calender from Kyungsangnamdo province office for naturalized civilians write Japanese Tenno’s birthday as Cheonhwang’s(천황天皇) birthday, not Japanese King’s(일왕日王) birthday.[5]Cheonhwang is Japanese Tenno’s title which is written in Chinese character ‘天皇’. ‘天皇’ is read as ‘Tenno’ in Japanese pronunciation, and ‘Cheonhwang’ in Korean pronunciation. Korea has suffered for about half century under Japanese colonization.

 

Japanese Tenno’s Title in Korean view

After liberation of 1945, Anti-Imperialism in form of Anti-Japanism and Nationalism was key ideology of South Korea. Even development issue is encouraged by Korean people’s inferior feeling about Japan. For example, President Pak Jung Hee said “Korean people never unite, but divide each other”[6] “In the colonization era, Japanese people said Korean people follow only with club, and now It is certain in my mind that Korean people will be in anomie unless somebody do not fix”[7] Japanese Meiji reform and Showa reform was his role model.

In Contemporary South Korea, calling Japanese Tenno as “Cheonhwang” is shortcut to be treated as Pro-Japan”, which has nuance of “national traitor”.[8] This inferior feeling about Japan is working as social trauma in South Korea by reminding tragic memory of past, so people naturally evade to call “Cheonhwang” as their ancestor called in Japanese colonization. As Japanese Imperialism is upraised with Tenno’s power recovery against Shogun of Makbu by Meiji reform, calling “Cheonhwang” is a symbol of Imperialism. Because “天皇” not only means ‘Emperor’, but also combination of ‘Sky天’ and ‘Emperor皇’, this makes Japanese Tenno’s title as sacred and universal symbol, which means Japanese superiority. This is also the reason of the Humanity Declaration forced by Supreme Commander of the Allied power.

Also, ‘Emperor’ in East Asia was just for Chinese Emperor who was symbol of absolute hegemon of Confucianism. Even Japanese Tenno called as ‘Emperor’ in Japanese society, Japan was divided society geopolitically. Chinese Emperor accepted Japanese Tenno’s title‘天皇’[9] but, in my opinion, Japan was not in “tribute-trade system” of Sinicism so it does not mean Japan as hegemon, but ‘our of China’s business’. After 19century, this geopolitical isolation was less meaningful, and with Imperialism of era, Japanese Tenno’s ‘Emperor’ title worked as hegemonic symbol to neighbor countries. For example, only under King Sunjong’s, the last king of pre-colonial Korean regime, Japanese Tenno is called with ‘extreme’ honorific title, “Cheonhwang Pyeha천황폐하”, Pyeha means ‘his majesty’.[10] It is because Sunjong’s era were de facto Japanese ruling. For Korean people, Japan as hegemon can be inconvenient.

 

Japanese Tenno’s Title in Japanese view

At first, Current western(U.S. and U.K.) people call Japanese Tenno as ‘Emperor’ which is matched with meaning of ‘天皇’. Even current Chinese government call ‘天皇’ as ‘Tianhuang天皇’. This means king’s title is just only title to the most states, not implying something serious in contemporary politics. Wakamiya Yoshibumi, Pre-editor of Asahi newspaper, says “Cheonhwang means Emperor who governing whole world, so it is obviously distinct from real world. … but just a proper noun … he does not have any political power and nobody think he rules whole world.”[11]

Plus, In East Asia, King(王) was title for who is under Chinese hegemonic order. This means, not calling Japanese Tenno as King(王) but Emperor(皇) is symbol of Japanese independency. Chinese Emperor’s acceptance in history is one of reason. Apparently Chinese Emperor did not admit Japanese Tenno as hegemon, but more independent political actor.

In Cultural category, Japanese Tenno is on the top of religious hierarchy of Shinto, Japanese traditional religion. It is in same vein with title of Pope of Christianism. Korean call Pope as 교황(敎皇) which means “Emperor(皇) of religion(敎)”. To Japanese people, it could be nonsense that Korean people call Pope as emperor but not Tenno as Emperor. Also, religious problem can be violence to each individual.

In Japanese view, Korean sensitivity about calling “Cheonhwang” may seem like Korean problem by feeling inferior and social trauma of history. But South Korea is now developed, rich and strong country with democracy. Japan is also supporter of liberty and democracy. Japanese government and Tenno showed lots of apology and compensation even though it is not perfect and some of unsolved problem. Rather, being completely enough could be impossible goal. South Korean development and long contemporary history of cooperation shows the result of Japanese compensation in quick decision. So Japanese people can think “how long they will act posture of victim?” Nobody cannot apologize forever.

 

Is the traumatic problem just only victim’s problem?

By comparing both of Korean and Japanese view, I concluded that there was historic tragedy which is unforgettable, even though not calling “Cheonhwang” is not proper. If Korean people deny to call “Cheonhwang”, Korean people also need to deny to call “Emperor” to Chinese emperor. Criticizing the calendar for naturalized citizen were not for native Korean people, thus it was not respecting and helping each naturalized individual who may believe ‘Shinto’ and familiar with title “Cheonhwang” or “Tenno”. Crucially, claim in Japanese view counter many argument of Korean view, because Korea is developed and changed from the past.

Korean people are prisoned in bias of victimization. According to Park Yuha, Comfort women issue became manipulated or affected by Government understanding. Government understanding became public understanding in top-down way, so that diverse individual’s voice disappeared. She says comfort women were not one-way victim, but also one constructing military force, who sometimes feel sympathy to soldiers. Some of them is not forced to be there by pimps.[12] Her main claim is, comfort women issue is based on each individual’s feminist issue, not ‘nation versus nation’ issue, because victim is Korean ‘Women’.

Even recent plagiarism issue of Shin Kyeongsook, a famous korean author, has brought big dispute from corruption of publishing industry’s authority to lamentable plagiarism of Japanese idea of imperialism. She plagiarized Mishima Yukio’s <Yuukoku憂国>. SeonWoojeong, Journalist of Chosun Newspaper, says the part “the body which knows pleasure”(기쁨을 아는 몸) means imperialistic idea in metaphor of sexual intercourse, but Shin Kyeongsook used that as just Sexual pleasure, he judge this as ignorant aspect of Korean publishers and authors, by using expression of “how dare”[13]. In fact, modern Korean literature has been affected a lot from Japanese literature. Japanese modern knowledge were birth of modern far-eastern knowledge. Blood drop(혈의루), the first modern literature of South Korea, was definitely affected by Japanese literature, and the other colonial authors wrote a lots of literature in Japanese language. But this is hardly known by Korean people.[14]

But this is not only Korean social trauma. As South Korean people is feeling not good with calling “Cheonhwang”, Japanese people and their government has similar sensitive issue. Recent ‘victor day parade’ of China is one of example. Even Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary-General, attended but Japan did not. There were some negative concern, but eventually, diplomatic people from many state -including Europe and North America- participated. So just not attending can be understood. But after UN secretary-General’s attendance, Japan denounced it public. If Japanese people and government does not feel good for Korea about denying to call “天皇”, Japan should have not denounced it, furthermore, they should have attended. Calling “天皇” as “Cheonhwang” in Korea means understanding past as only past. In the similar way, Japan’s attending on “victor’s day parade” can be understanding past as only past, as Germany do in Europe. Murayama Domiichi’s, ex-prime minister of Japan, attendanceto the parade as ‘individual’ is under this understanding,[15]

Japan is also not free from Korean divided status. Even though Korean division is not directly by Japan but U.S. and USSR. Current Korean division became one of most seriously complex problem in the world, which is still hard with international cooperation like six-party nuclear talks and KEDO. This is conclusion of abnormal colonial status made in Imperial era, and if South Korea as independent state, division might have not happened.

Before Japan show their dissatisfaction about victimization and expectation for strong, independent, normal state, division limit the potential power of normal state. Korean division is one of key problem for many internal political, social, economic issue that works permanently. Korea is stuck in cold war regime inter-political level, courthouse and civil society is stuck with authoritarianism under cold war ideology, Stock market wave every time North Korea make issue, and there is also high security cost. Sad history can be history only after unification, because division became each South Korean’s daily life scenery which often makes South Korean people feel abnormality as normality. I think this is why Sejima Ryujo, who is evaluated as the giant background of Japanese right wing politician, said “Korea will be united. Japan should reconsider the past history and comprehend Korean feelings so that Japan go to cooperate with Korea for unification on the liberal and democratic columns.[16] But Japanese government refused Korea’s request “Japanese self-defense force cannot go into North Korean region without Korea’s permission. Also, Sejima Ryujo supports Japan’s conservative history book on the other hand.

 

Conclusion

Far-east Asia’s discord is not only because of historic problem. It is not only historic because it is ‘the present progressive’. This cannot be only social trauma but contemporary affairs between states, as we can see Senkaku / Diaowidiao archipelago problem and Korean unification problem. If there were not Senkaku/ Diaowidiao archipelago problem, Japan may attended ‘victor day parade’. If there were unified Korea, Korea and Japan could understand each other in better mood. Every state still have long way to solve discord, thus far-east states should be humble, especially Japan cannot show opinion that their effort is enough, rather still has long way.

Also South Korea sould not concern too much about minor problems about title of Japanese Tenno. According to my search of <Chosunwangjosillok>(Chosun dynasty’s history record), key literature of Korean history for 505 years before 20th century, there were no concern about Japanese Tenno’s title for 505years in my quick rough investigation. Here is my opinion. If “Cheonhwang” is still hard title to Korean people, how is “Tenno” title? If Korean people call Japanese Tenno as “Tenno”, that is showing Tenno is Tenno(’天皇’) to Japanese people, but it is not “Cheonhwang”, the Tenno for Korean people. What I mean is, just erasing Tenno as Chinese character ‘天皇’ but only pronunciation ‘Tenno”. Of course, if someone say this is only level of pun, I cannot deny it. Because I know real solution is humbly calling Japanese Tenno as “Cheonhwang” in open mind, like president Kim Dae Jung tried.When Kim Dae Jung declared to call Japanese Tenno as “Cheonhwang”, Tenno opened that one part of his ancestors was from Baekje, one of Korean aincient dynasty.[17][18]

 

Reference:

경향신문, [정리뉴스]학문의 자유 침해인가, 정당한 법적 처벌인가···박유하 교수의 <제국의 위안부>를 둘러싼 논란들, 2015-12-06, http://h2.khan.co.kr/201512031631051

Professor Park Yuha’s facebook timeline, 2015-12-04 https://www.facebook.com/parkyuha/posts/1240486302644948

Kookmin newspaper, 천황탄생일이라니…’ 경상남도 제작달력 시끌… 페북지기 초이스, 2015-12-17, http://m.kmib.co.kr/view.asp?arcid=0010172472&code=61121111&sid1=soc#cb

한국정신문화연구원, 장면-윤보선-박정희, p.225~234

조갑제, 네 무덤에 침을 뱉어라, 169p

한국일보, “일왕호칭 일본인에 모욕감… ‘천황’ 불러주길”, 2015-08-12 http://www.hankookilbo.com/v/1d7a3c9c860a4684a513e3afcbacc647

SBS, [칼럼] 불온한시도, 불편한사실…’제국의위안부’ 논쟁관련, 2015-12-15, http://m.news.naver.com/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=055&aid=0000358625

조선일보, [선우정칼럼] 아무리 잘 베껴도 優位일 수 없다, 2015.06.25
http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2015/06/24/2015062404074.html

김정복, <아무리 잘 베껴도 優位 일수 없다(선우정)>를 읽고, 2015-06-25, 개인홈페이지 ’함시 복수초
’http://cafe.daum.net/youngsangangcafe/MGaZ/1518?q=%C1%B6%BC%B1%C0%CF%BA%B8+%BC%B1%BF%EC%C1%A4+%C4%AE%B7%B3

조선일보, 朴대통령, 다른 정상과 달리 ‘착석관람’…위치는 의전 따라 바뀌어, 2015-09-04, http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2015/09/04/2015090400347.html

조선일보, [선우정칼럼] 朴泰俊(박태준)이 본 日本, 2015-03-05, http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2015/03/04/2015030404648.html?Dep0=twitter&d=2015030404648

[1] Both faction of positive and negative researchers are showing same statement on this point.

Kyunghyang newspaper, [정리뉴스]학문의 자유 침해인가, 정당한 법적 처벌인가···박유하 교수의 <제국의 위안부>를 둘러싼 논란들, 2015-12-06, http://h2.khan.co.kr/201512031631051

[2] Her disputatious book, <The Comfort women of Imperial>(제국의 위안부),

[3]I think this can be translated as “kangaroo court”, but it sounds like public opinion made by shallow journalism and major idea about comfort women. This kind of agenda is spicy enough to make people upset easily.

[4]Park Yuha, Dear, <Researchers and Activists who feel sympathy to ‘Comfort Women’ victims and act for righteous solution(일본군 위안부 피해자들의 아픔에 깊이 공감하고,위안부문제의 정의로운 해결을 위해 활동하는 연구자와 활동가 일동)>, Park Yuha’s facebook timeline, 2015-12-04 https://www.facebook.com/parkyuha/posts/1240486302644948
This article is one of her public statement to one faction of scholars and researchers,

[5]Kookmin newspaper, 천황탄생일이라니…’ 경상남도 제작 달력 시끌…페북지기초이스, 2015-12-17, http://m.kmib.co.kr/view.asp?arcid=0010172472&code=61121111&sid1=soc#cb

[6]Refered 한국정신문화연구원, 장면-윤보선-박정희, p.225~234

[7]조갑제, 네 무덤에 침을 뱉어라, 169p

[8] But it is interesting point that Korean people call “pro-Korea” or “pro-other state’s name” to foreign people without this nuance. Also ‘친한파’ which means “pro-Korea” sometimes changed as ‘지한파’. ‘친한파’ is meaning of ‘Korea-friendly’, but ‘지한파’ is meaning of ‘Korea-supporting’.

[9]한국일보, “일왕 호칭 일본인에 모욕감… ‘천황’ 불러주길”, 2015-08-12 http://www.hankookilbo.com/v/1d7a3c9c860a4684a513e3afcbacc647

[10] <Sunjongsillok>of <Chosunwangjosillok>, National Institute of Korean History
http://sillok.history.go.kr/inspection/inspection.jsp?mState=2&mTree=0&clsName=&searchType=a&keyword=%EC%B2%9C%EC%99%95+%ED%8F%90%ED%95%98

[11] 한국일보, “일왕 호칭 일본인에 모욕감… ‘천황’ 불러주길”, 2015-08-12 http://www.hankookilbo.com/v/1d7a3c9c860a4684a513e3afcbacc647

[12] SBS, [칼럼] 불온한 시도, 불편한 사실…’제국의 위안부’ 논쟁 관련, 2015-12-15, http://m.news.naver.com/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=055&aid=0000358625

[13]조선일보, [선우정 칼럼] 아무리 잘 베껴도 優位일 수 없다, 2015.06.25
http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2015/06/24/2015062404074.html

[14]김정복, <아무리 잘 베껴도 優位일 수 없다(선우정)>를 읽고, 2015-06-25, 개인홈페이지 ’함시복수초
’http://cafe.daum.net/youngsangangcafe/MGaZ/1518?q=%C1%B6%BC%B1%C0%CF%BA%B8+%BC%B1%BF%EC%C1%A4+%C4%AE%B7%B3

[15]조선일보, 朴대통령, 다른 정상과 달리 ‘착석 관람’… 위치는 의전따라 바뀌어, 2015-09-04, http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2015/09/04/2015090400347.html

[16]조선일보, [선우정 칼럼] 朴泰俊(박태준)이 본 日本, 2015-03-05, http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2015/03/04/2015030404648.html?Dep0=twitter&d=2015030404648

[17]한국일보, “일왕 호칭 일본인에 모욕감… ‘천황’ 불러주길”, 2015-08-12 http://www.hankookilbo.com/v/1d7a3c9c860a4684a513e3afcbacc647

[18]But current government returned to call “Japanese King” under some of discords, for example, “Dokdo islands”

Link between Political decision and Faith

nikon-scan-original_4.jpg

Link between Political decision and Faith:
by comparing the Islamic state, North Korea, and <StarCraft 2 : Legacy of the void>.

Yoon Jaehyun

 

Are terrorists uncommon minorities?

It is hard to call the Islamic state (ISIS) as typical terrorists currently. Jihadistic terrorism has been evolved. Osama Bin Laden’s terrorism was closer to corporatized terror. He franchised it out to the world by using modern means, exploiting modern customs and culture for terrorism. Bin Laden is considered as creature of the modern secular world. But ISIS terrorism changed from fighting of non-territorial organization to fighting of land-governing state.

It could be not proper to consider Jihadism as totally same thing with terrorism. Considering Jihadism as same term with terrorism is denying the Islamic state as malfunctioning state. It seems like being land-governing state offered choice to be ‘purifier’ of Islam with Takfiri doctrine, not risk to be ‘apostates’ of radical Takfirism. The punishment for apostasy is death. The Islamic state is committed to purifying the world by killing vast number of people, and Muslim ‘apostates’ are the most common victims.[1] As, the Atlantic’s argument, the Islamic state is more in the fascistic tradition of ‘reign of terror’ way in which David Koresh or Jim Jones were. But it is not small number of hundreds, but about 8 million people are under their power.

This phenomenon makes me think the Islamic state in metaphor with <Wish>(소원)[2], a North Korean movie which emphasizing ‘the leader’ as public, even sacred avatar of society that all North Korean should unite for him, and individual have to sacrifice for him. These two fascist or nationalist states are being mockery and international abnormalities. The Atlantic is arguing ISIS attracted ardent followers including psychopath and adventure seekers. The New York Times is describing Ms. Malik, San Bernardino criminal, as isolated person. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev of Boston bombings, Seung-Hui Cho who committed the Virginia Tech massacre are illustrated as atomized, disconnected people. Terrorists and massacre criminals are described as socially laming people. It sounds like ordinary people sharing common sense of major society will never follow irrational belief.

 

Everybody can be weirdo, because everybody has faith.

By the way, these terrorists reminded a recently released computer game <StarCraft2 : Legacy of the void> by Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. the scenario of this game is about space opera of Protoss species. Protoss has strong identity of mass unification of ideology and sacrifice from individual to all. They even destroy their planets in a drastic step to reach all Protoss’s mission. Eventually, ‘Taldarim’ Protoss, the minority antithesis of major Protoss faction is allying for one Protoss goal and they make success. This epic narrative of devotion made many people be impressed, but in my opinion, this story shares same value with the Islamic state and North Korea. These are all describing virtue of individual devotion, sacrifice, and convergence to one value. Some of narratives are different-one is honour in Protoss style, the other is honour in ISIS and North Korean style, but people are not feeling serious abnormalities and being scared in Protoss’s fiction stories, but they enjoy it.

In my opinion, political thinking and human decision is standing on each individual’s faith. Faith is about absolute or huge value which is constructed in macro system of religion, society, etc. it appears in form such as life wish, social role, honour, and being glory unto God, etc., which are out of one individual’s dimension of time and space. People are thinking about their daily life but also they are thinking unique dream or mission of their each life. Individuals do not know or fully understand their ultimate goals, so their faith is sometimes prior to rationality. As we can see in example of <StarCraft 2: Legacy of the void>, everybody has faith which is prior to rationality and it is shown as preference to the scenario. This is the common point between sane majority and weird minority so, even a faction of majority can suddenly distinct themselves as minority with irrational thinking. anybody can be shown as weirdo, potentially in some points.

According to St. Augustine, faith is that “I believe so that I understand”[3]. This change unknown result of terrorist’s plan to trial of understanding Islamic value. Decisional venture with unknown future is converted to action with belief. This is why people with terrorist faith can overcome common sense and decide to venture themselves, why ISIS supporters are trying to build medieval civilization, and why there can be voluntary supporters of ISIS and North Korean ideology. As the Atlantic is saying, struggle, danger, and death is converted to a drama on the side of righteousness, and making people feel privileged by their social, political or religious faith. It seems like faith is working as key factor prior to human rationality.

 

Faith makes whether the exchange ‘happens or not’ as important factor,
not ‘the amount’ of the exchange under system of authority.

By the way, it is hard to say faith is always prior to rational idea that concerns current situation and risk of choice. Thus, as the Atlantic is arguing, will, horror and ideological faith can be shorter than the war which may be a long one. Faith cannot survive alone, but it survive with response and compensation of authority which is pointed by faith. (I.e. sexual slaves and forced wives of ISIS)[4] Nevertheless, religious faith is about individual’s devotion and authority of ideology that is voluntarily embraced by individual. So, even though there should be exchange between authority and individual, the structure that support voluntary individual’s faith would be remain with unequal exchange and religious exploitation of the Islamic state hegemon to individual.

This theory is also able to adopt in North Korea’s case. Felix Abt is arguing North Koreans are pragmatists even they follow the hegemonic system and ideology. Lankov is also saying North Koreans no more fully believe government propaganda and they are not brainwashed. Nevertheless, they do not know foreign world is in exactly what shape. They just know it is different and exaggerated. Lack of information makes people try to understand, and this is inevitably connected to belief. In the North Korean faith, there can be patriotism, anti-imperialism, desire of development and wealth, resistance for government regulation, etc. Although, public is easy to be affected by their authority in whatever way under the lack of information, and the closest authority for North Korean people is North Korean government. Even if North Koreans are pragmatists, they are not free from governing hegemon, systemic exchange is working although that is unfair and exploiting.

Unfair exchange between government and individual also happens in South Korea. Park Yu Ha, a scholar who wrote disputatious book <the Comfort Women of Imperial>, is currently accused to be imprisoned in her house and having regal dispute with ex-comfort women. She is arguing diverse experience of each comfort women is generalized by political nationalist hegemon, each individual’s story eventually disappear and it only become government-owned agenda. According to her Facebook post, she got an ex-comfort woman’s call that repeating “5 professor of Seoul National University said your book is bad book”[5]. But Park Yu Ha is only claiming I was not humiliating comfort women but “introducing view of other people related in this issue, and disappeared under government and supporters voice”[6]. If the comfort women who under government voice are concerning about this issue, they should have tried to read or understand the book, not depending on 5 professor’s authority. In my opinion, they exchanged individual’s right with government authority under belief to the government.

 

Is theory of faith pseudo-science?

But explaining social phenomena under individual’s faith is unable to disprove, because this can explain any phenomena. In macro view, every conclusion is possible under this theory, so we cannot explain future. One of example is Alfred Adler’s theory that is emphasizing the feeling of inferiority. One man who feel inferiority can die because he feel inferiority, but also struggle with his work because he feel inferiority. Karl R. Popper call this type of theory as ‘Pseudo-science’.

However, it is natural to be unable to expect future in social science. In social science, conclusion of one research become another variables of social phenomena. It is because the object of science is people, not material. People see the result of research and respond to it before they see conclusion of future activity. It is similar with the protagonists in movie series “the Butterfly effect” doing. Every time the protagonist fix the future result, there is another unexpected future.

Aristotle said “ALL men by nature desire to know” [7] in <Metaphysics>. Faith is for understanding. Even though understanding people’s activity cannot be perfect, Faith to know is natural and valuable as itself. Thus, I think, faith is power to make activity to affect and change world.

 

Conclusion : How can we handle faith.

Faith is prior factor to understand social and political affairs. Distinguishing a faction as “abnormality” like experiment material is not proper way. “What they are thinking” is important than “What is wrong”, because faith can hardly be changed with only rational thinking. Understanding faith of ISIS and North Korea is prior factor to change them, because political actors change themselves with their own faith before other people enforce to make change. Changing faith is based on changing hegemon of minority society to think in different way for their security. For example, if there is collective security system in Far East, It will be easy for South Korea and North Korea to make political and economic reform by exiting faith of Cold War thinking that makes nation as priority to individual. Secondly, showing different alternative goal of same or similar minority’s faith can be important. For example, Salafists are easily deemed as potential Islamic radical terrorist. But there is also diversity of Salafists. Some of them try to coexist, some of them try to make themselves distinct from politics. Like this, there can be many alternative option for potential ISIS supporter. Third one is self-reflecting majority, because majority is also in their own faith. People should rethink “is this something should be changed? Should that be changed in this way?”

 

 

Reference :

What ISIS Really Wants, Graeme Wood, March 2015, the Atlantic,
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/03/what-isis-really-wants/384980/

F.B.I. Treating San Bernardino Attack as Terrorism Case, MICHAEL S. SCHMIDT and RICHARD PÉREZ-PEÑADEC. 4, 2015, the New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/05/us/tashfeen-malik-islamic-state.html?_r=0

Atomised Terror and Democratic Citizenship, JOSEPH YI, 2013, Political Quarterly 84(3).

Syrian girls forced to marry ISIS fighters, Asaad Hanna, Syria Pulse, Al-monitor http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ru/originals/2014/05/syria-girls-marriage-isis-raqqa.html

Credo ut intelligam, searched at 2015, Dec, 7th Wikipedia,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credo_ut_intelligam

Felix Apt, <A Capitalist in North Korea>, 2014, Tuttle Publishing

Andrei Lankov, <The Real North Korea>, 2013, Oxford University press

Park Yu Ha’s facebook timeline, https://www.facebook.com/parkyuha

 

[1] What ISIS Really Wants, Graeme Wood, March 2015, the Atlantic, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/03/what-isis-really-wants/384980/

[2] You can watch at KCTV youtube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsGejYqmJDE

[3] Credo ut intelligam, searched at 2015, Dec, 7th Wikipedia,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credo_ut_intelligam

[4] Syrian girls forced to marry ISIS fighters, Asaad Hanna, Syria Pulse, Al-monitor http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ru/originals/2014/05/syria-girls-marriage-isis-raqqa.html

[5] Park Yuha, Dec. 9th, 2015, on her facebook timeline https://www.facebook.com/parkyuha/posts/1243408772352701?pnref=story

[6] Park Yuha, Dec. 2nd, 2015, on her facebook timeline https://www.facebook.com/parkyuha/posts/1239404569419788

[7] Aristotle, Metaphysics, http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.1.i.html

사진을 발견했다.(인물/글씨)

 

하늘아래 뫼이로다.

이거 글씨 만들려고 몇일동안 꼬박 자음, 모음부터 글자 하나하나까지

꼬박 꼬박 만들었었는데…

“가”, “레” “오”같은 단순한 글자부터 “온”, “를”, “황” 뭐 이렇게 복잡한 건 어떻게 되나 보면서..

벽에 실험했을 떈 이쁘게 나온 게 많이 없었음.

그냥 손때문일지도 몰라.

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기왕 올린 거, 몇개 더.

잘 그린 것만.

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사실 이건 아래 그림을 벽에 옮긴 것.

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사실, 이 그림은 거꾸로 봐도 표정이 된다.

 

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보임?

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이제 타이포

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DSC00433.jpg얘는 아직 이 이름 쓰려나?

 

아버지

오늘 여섯시 사십오분에 아버지로부터 카카오톡 메세지가 왔다.

오래전부터 몸상태가 좋지 않은데, 시간이 없어서 병원에 못 간 다는 말씀이다.
만약 큰일이 나면 어머니는 어찌할 것이며, 우리는 어떡할것이냐, 충분한 시간을 주었는데 청년시기의 대부분이 학교에서 끝나는구나.. 이런 이야기다. 말미에는 내가 원망스럽다고 하셨다.

할 말이 없다. 정말로…

우리 아버지는 60년 생 쥐띠다. 초등학교를 마치자 마자 일을 시작했다. 우리 어머니도 억척스런 분이다. 그렇게 일을 해서 우리집은 남부럽지 않게 살았고, 나는 용돈과 등록금 걱정을 해 본 적도 없다. 집에 단 한 가지 흠이 있다면, 부모님이 절약과 일에 병적으로 중독이라는 점.

아버지는 아침 다섯시에 일어나 땅을 삽으로 헤치고, 아홉 시에 돌아오셔서 식사를 하고 열 시가 되어 전자상가로 일을 나가셔서 아홉 시가 되어 돌아오신다. 때로는 열한시가 되어. 주말에는 교회에 한번 출석하는 것을 제외하고 농장에서 일을 하신다.

아버지 세대는 못해도 고등학교를 졸업하면 바로 일하는 세대셨을 것이다. 중학교 졸업하고 일하는 분들도 많았을 것 같다. 우리 세대는 사치스럽게도 스물여섯-일곱 까지는 대학을 다닌다. 이것이 아무리 우리 세대의 표준이라 할지라도, 아버지에게는 절대적으로 커다란 희생이었을 것이다. 우리 아버지는 그 윗 세대에게 받은 것보다 십오 년은 더 많이 내 뒷바라지를 하셨다. 원망스럽다고 하더라도 당연하다. 이것을 보고 있으면, 아버지의 삶은 가족-자신을 둘러싼 사람들로 풍경을 만드는 것이었다.

반대로 나는 어떠한가? 나는 삶의 종교를 믿는다. 실존의 낭만 속에 살고 나의 사유와 나다움, 나의 정체성이 내겐 중요했다. 나는 사람들과 관계맺는 것 또한 그런 의미에서 좋다. 그들은 거울과 같고, 때로는 나를 송두리채 바꿔버린다. 그러나, 사람들과 말하는 데에는 쥐약을 먹는 느낌이 항상 있다. 특히, 그들과 깊은 유대감을 맺을 수록 그러하다. 대화는 상쾌하고 즐거우나 항상 뒤에 따라오는 어쩔 수 없는 고통 또한 처방했다. 아마, 이것이 내가 정착하지 않고 세상을 돌아다니는 꿈을 꾸게 만든 이유일 것이다. 한 사람 한 사람을 여행하며, 잠깐 스쳐 지나가고, 한 사람이 사라지면, 대신 또 다른 사람을 만나는 것. 전 세계를 돌아다니며 온갖 사람을 만나는 것. 나에겐 내 스스로가 풍경 그 자체였다. 누구에게 보여주는 게 아니라, 내 정체성은 온 세계에서 유리되지 않았다. 온 세계에서 어떤 부분에 국한되지 않는다는 건, 나만 있는 것과도 같을 지도 모르나, 내가 실존하는 것 자체가 내게 무조건 일어나는 현상이다.

그러한 의미에서 가족과 이야기하는 건 때로는 지옥길을 겉는 것 같은 기분이었다. 동시에, 가족을 떠올리면 그 사소한 사랑들이 하나 하나 떠오르며 날 꽈악 옥죄어맨다. 이럴 때는 그러한 느낌이 정말 심해진다. 이건 내가 캐나다에 일 년 동안 갔다온 이후 더 심해졌다. 그렇지만 내 가족이다… 내가 그들을 사랑하지 않는가? 나는 그들을 사랑하고 있는 것 같다… 고민에 침잠하는 기분을 떨칠 수 없다.
오늘의 나는 어떤가? 이번 년에 나는 많이 무너졌다. 두 학기와 한번의 방학 동안 내내 무너지는 건 정말 비참한 경험이다. 내가 부지런한 데 무너진 것이 아니기에 입이 열 개라도 할말이 없으며, 오히려 게을러서, 그리고 안좋은 습관과 나의 욕심, 낭만 때문에 무너진 것이다. 그래서 구덩이에서 빠져 나올 구멍은 더 캄캄해 보인다.

이러한 경험들 속에서, 나는 오늘을 현상(phenomenon)으로 살기로 결심했었다. 과거와 미래는 지칭할 수 있는 ‘목적’이지만 현재는 그러하지 않았다. 다들 미래를 살기 위해 현재를 투자한다. 현재는 사라진다. 구원을 향해 달려가는 사람들이다. 나는 반대로 나의 실존을 믿고 현상만을 바라보고 싶었다. 미래를 생각하지 않고 나의 항상 부르려 하면 과거가 되어버리는 현재를 살아보고 싶었다. 현재에 충실하고 현재가 만족으로 풍요로우면 미래도 풍요로워지겠거니, 라고 생각했다. 미래를 보고 살아가다 보면 현재를 희생하고, 현재로서 현상될 미래 또한 그 다음의 미래를 위해 그저 수단이 되겠지. 영원한 수단의 연속이겠거니, 라고 생각했다. 그저 ‘수단’의 순환이기에 목적과 본질은 처음부터 있을 수 없는 허구인 것이다. 나는 나라는 현상 그 자체가 되고 싶었다. 졸업 후엔 세계 여행을 시작해보고 싶었다. 호주부터 시작해서, 할 수 있을 때 까지… ( 이렇게 말하니 스스로 현상을 목적이나 본질로 치환하던 어떤 목사가 떠오른다. 이 점을 공격하면서 한 시간동안 토론했는데, 결과적으로는 내가 똑같은 삶을 살고 있진 않았나, 현상을 목적하는 오류를 저지른 건 아닌가?)

하지만 아버지의 메세지는 내게 다른 이야기를 던져준다. 내가 현상(또는 현재, 나는 둘을 동의어로 지칭하겠다. 이유는 현재만이 지칭될 수 없는 상태이기에, 현상이 될 수 있기 때문이다.)이라 말하던 오늘의 나는, 아버지가 그 현상을 희생하고 만든 미래다. 내가 아무리 나의 삶을 ‘현상’이라 선언한들, 나는 이미 누군가의 미래를 살고 있었다. 누군가가 나를 ‘목적’으로 바라보는 순간, 나는 ‘수단’을 인정할 수 밖에 없게 된다.

내가 곧 온전한 나의 세계이며, 타자의 의지는 나에 영향을 미치지 않는다고 한다면 이를 부정할 수도 있을지도 모른다. 세계와 내가 동치가 되기 떄문이다. 아니, 현상이라고 하는 순간 ‘자아’는 중요한 것이 되지 않는다. 나와 세계는 없고 현상 단 하나만이 존재할 뿐이다. 내가 세계를 바라보는 것이 아니라, 허공에서 부릅뜬  두 눈이 나를 쳐다볼 뿐이다.

아버지는 언젠가 나에게 말한 적이 있다.

“재현아, 가만 생각해보니 네가 나다.”
“….?”
“내 세포 하나가 네가 된 거잖아? 네가 생각하는 건 내가 생각하고 있는 것일지도 몰라. 나는 네가 되어서 인생을 살고 있는거야”
“아버지, 재미있는 생각인데요, 저는 이런 생각에 대해 이렇게 한 번 생각해 본 적이 있는데요..그”
“재현아, 너는 쓸데없는 말이 너무 많아, 피곤하다, 그만하자”
(“왜 자기 하고 싶은 얘기는 다 하고 끊어먹어요, 아버지”)

아버지 말대로, 내가 아버지의 연속체라면 이야기가 좀 달라진다. 아버지라는 타자는 더 이상 타자가 아니고, 나의 부분이다. 아버지의 의지는 곧 나의 의지이다. 아버지의 “목적”인 나는, 곧 나의 현상과 공존한다. 아버지가 자신의 삶을 수단으로 살고 있지만, 그건 내가 자신의 삶을 수단으로 살고 있는것과 같다. 나의 현재는 수단이고, 목적이면서 현상인 모순이 되어 버린다. 나는 내 존재 자체가 모순이다. 모순이다. 모순…

나는 아버지를 사랑한다. 내가 조금이라도 현상이 되고 싶으면 아버지께 이제 아버지 삶을 사시라고 이야기 해 보는게 정의로운 것이리라. 왜 나는 아버지께 아버지 삶은 무엇으로 만들고 싶냐고 안 물어봤을까. 그런 질문을 왜 “응, 피아노 배우고 연습하면서.. 언젠가는 교회 반주자가 될 수 있지 않을까”, “나는 젊었으면 법 공부를 해 보고 싶었어”정도의 대답으로 멈췄을까. 그리고 적어도 아버지가 ‘목적’으로서 믿어온 내 삶에 대해, 왜 ‘수단’이었던 아버지 삶에 되돌려주는 건 그리 힘들게 생각할까. 비록 ‘목적’은 신앙이지만, 모두 각자의 삶에 신앙이 있다. 신앙의 목적과 신앙적 수단의 교환관계는 양으로는 따질 수 없다. 양과 상관없이 교환 행위 자체의 주고받음이 중요하다는 생각이다. 그러나, 나는 그것조차도 힘겹다고 엄살 부려왔다. 나는 선물도 참 못하고, 기념일도 참 못 챙기고, 나는, 나는,

나는 그냥, 한참 생각하다 아버지께 카카오톡 답변을 드렸다.

“죄송합니다…”

 

빨리 취직하겠다는 이야기는 차마 못했다.
불안했던 현상의 꿈을 더 이상 꿀 수 있을까, 호주에 갈 수 있을까.
생각을 떨칠 수 없는 나는 참 못낫다.

 

 

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